Thursday, June 4, 2020

Symbolism and Allegory in Animal Farm - Free Essay Example

The book Animal Farm is a simple plainly written novel by George Orwell of animal rising up to take control of their own destiny and faith. The novel is an allegory for not just the Soviet Union and its slight insidious transformation from communism high ideas of equality into totalitarian rule by a single dictator and his chief propagandist but also for the challenges of self-governance and the perils of government, people face all around the world. The author was born in June 25th, 1903, to British Parents in India. He was a World War II correspondence for BBC, he first hand experiences of class struggles and inequalities of every day life in England, inspired the writing of Animal Farm. The structure of the novel parallels the Russian Revolution its satire using animals and their names and actions as embellished heightened versions of reality. A number of themes have been reflected in this novel, and they all have some form of political connections; first there is corruption we see how Napoleon and his inner circle take when it comes to control and power end up becoming miles leading the animals far astray from their original ideas of communist then there is exploitation, throughout Animal Farm we see how the working class is exploited by the rich and wealthy ruling elites to provide for their needs. The hard- working lower classes serve the depictive upper ones, in fact deception is its own theme and we see how Napoleon and Squealer shaped history to better suit their needs, suppressing education while fear- mongering creates a culture of deception that allows for the rise of a dictator. On the other hand, the theme of idealism is an important one too, especially at the beginning; dreams of equality and legends of animal bravery set stage for a revolution by go intensions. Lastly, there is apathy an important theme for un derstanding how dictatorships take place without action to support it, education is essentially useless we especially see this in Benjamin the donkey whose cynical attitude and insistence, that nothing ever changes becomes a self- fulfilling prophecy of doom, a complacent population is ripe for the picking by controlling dictators bent on power and control. Many times, in history in different parts of the world we have seen that people have revolted to protect their rights and liberty from the hands of the aristocrat, as with any other theme that we have seen in your course you study this is no different. From humans to farm animals there are many characters that has been shown in this book, but there are seven main characters here. Napoleon is the main character he is a pig and he rules the farm with brutality and an iron fist hes portrays an image of Joseph Stalin, keeping most of the wealth and the prosperity happening in the farm to himself and his few followers while oppressing others. Next up there is snowball, who was really intelligent and had great planning ability which turned out to be a great asset to the farm, hes an excellent strategist and hes popular known for his charismatic speeches and idealistic beliefs in animalism, he represents Leon Trotsky. Then comes Mr. Jones, he is a human farm owner and he is also an alcoholi c who mistreats the animals and leads the rebellion in the first place to happen against him, he represents tsar Nicholas II who was forced out of the Soviet Union. Next comes Squealer who is a Pig, he is a great public speaker and a mouthpiece for Napoleon and the fascist regime he is the representation of Nazi propagandist Joseph Gables. Next there is Boxer, he is a strong hardworking horse he is dedicated and powerful; his lack of intelligence causes him to follow the pigs blindly they send him to a slaughterer when his health fails, he represents the working class who were always exploited by the rich to fulfil their aristocratic needs. The Old Major comes up next, he is a bore, he is the founding father of animal disorder, he is a strong believer in revolution and he shares his vision shortly before he dies. He is the representation of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin who were the main brains behind the ideas. Lastly, we talk about Benjamin the Donkey, he is the smartest animal on the farm as he could read and write but he considers the rebellion to be useless and doesnt participate in it. He is cynical and thinks nothing really changes; he is representative of the will of the educated people to get involved or stay back. The Animal Farm is more than just a book that talks about the animals controlling their own farm, its an allegory to the Russian Revolution and its aftermath as well the systems of political power that people deal with notions of freedom. The Russian society in the early twentieth century was bipolar, a small number of aristocratic and powerful people ruled over the peasants and the poor working class to fulfill their needs and desires, while exploiting them. This period created a sense of betrayal and anger among the common people and they decided to use for to revolt against the powerful and wealthy for protecting their rights and liberty, this was the first step in restoring Russia to prosperity that it had known before World War I and in modernizing the countrys primitive infrastructure. In the introduction old Major introduces ideas about animal rebellion sowing the seeds for the revolution to come. Snowball and Napoleon take the lead in formalizing old majors teachings callings it an immortal. This is also where we meet the characters and see the hierarchy of animals forming theres there is a lot of rising action mostly starting with Mr. Jones gets so drunk that he forgets to feed the animals, they take over the farm and inscribe the seven commandments of animalism on the wall of the barn to provide guidance as they forge ahead learning self-governance. Mr. Jones eventually tries to take control over the farms leading to the Battle of cowshed a watershed moment if there is any in the history of the farm. After Napoleons trade with Frederick we see an attack being launched which leaves boxer injured badly, boxer is sent away to slaughter as the animals protested, we finally see a point where even some of the most dogmatic followers of animalism an hardest workers which they dont want what Napoleon wants exactly. We have seen a similar picture in the Russians Revolution that the poor working class was always exploited by the aristocratic class, and if the workers decided to go against them then they would be punished for their actions. By the story animal farm, the author has managed to draw a picture of the social class and its during the Russian Revolution. More than half- a century later the novel continues to have contemporary relevance, it serves as a broader cautionary tale showing how a corrupt and selfish leader uses fear and ignorance to gain control over the masses, it also warns against complacency in a population. Even in todays date and time we see people around us who are hungry for power and fame but whats funny is the fact that they dont want to work hard for it! They would rather sit down relax and expect other people around them to do all the work and the at the end of the day they would take all the credit. As we have seen in the book Animal Farm and during the Russian revolution that humans or animals, they would all always try to overthrow each other for the race of supremacy of power, everyone wants to be a leader and have a mark for themselves in the society. Another point that jumps out to be is the fact that during the Russian Revolution there was a strong class distinction, even in todays so called modern world w e are struggling to escape caste system from some parts of the world, it is that the rich keeps getting better and the poor working class keeps getting exploited and keeps getting overshowed by aristocratic and powerful people. Various thinking categories can be used to better understand the text, the first historical thinking category that I am going to talk about is Diffusion. Diffusion is the spread of an invention or discovery from one place to another. The spread of ideas such as capitalism, democracy and even religious beliefs has bought about changes in human relations around the world. So, diffusion often involves the expansion of ideas across the globe and it can occur many different ways, in this particular text we have seen the spread of the ideas of revolution we have seen the ideas of revolution first popped up in UK and then it around Europe and eventually it reached Russian which resulted in the Russian Revolution in the year 1917, the book Animal Farm is a satire on the Russian Revolution. Next up we can talk about the different Social Class structures that has been shown in the book animal kingdom, we have seen that animals fight among themselves for ultimate power and supremacy in the farm , in the story Napoleon was a representative of the wealthy class who never did any of the work but was power hungry to rule over the working class and made them work the hardest, the horse Boxer represented the poor working class who were controlled by the people in power. The last historical thinking category that I can talk about would be Common Phenomena generally refers to similar events that occur in different places without originating from a focal point. In the book, Animal Farm, George Orwell has given us clues about the Russian Revolution, while talking about the same we can say that revolution had occurred in different parts of the world during different periods but they all had a similar motive to bring about equality and liberty among the people and to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor, although they all had different ways of doing it, but the end goal was same. As mentioned earlier the novel Animal farm is a satire against the Russian Revolution which took place in the year 1917, this was the time which dismantled Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union. A lot of social issues cropped up during this time, at this time we had seen the peasants migrating from industrial to urban environments. The farmers were exploited by the wealthy there were forced to work for longer hours with higher pay, and they had no benefits what so ever, this constant suppression was a major reason for the uprising of the Russian Revolution during this time. The Russian society during the early twentieth century was bipolar, with power lying in the hands of the selected few, while the vasy majority of the people were under the rule. Tsar Nicholas II, who was the monarch of Russian, was overthrown from the throne, and then seized power in the name of the Communist Party, the new system of governance took the control over land and industry from priva te owners and put them under the governments eyes, this step insured that Russia moved towards being modern. Orwell has managed to throw light upon the social injustice and the fight for supremacy that was on during the Russian Revolution, the book Animal Farm is a satire against the ideas of revolution and revolt that took place during the Russian Revolution. The author has managed to smartly give distinct features to his animals that would represent the ideas and the people during the revolution. The pig Napoleon was a representation of the rich and wealthy class who never worked hard to gain anything on their own, they rather gained power and fulfilled their aristocratic needs from the poor working class. The horse Boxer was a representation of the poor working class who would be exploited by the powerful for their comfort, and ones their needs were satisfied no one would care to pat an eye upon the condition of the poor. In a nutshell, I would say that George Orwell through his book Animal Farm has done a really great job of giving us a picture of the social and political concerns and p roblems during the Russian Revolution, initially his book was listed under childrens book genre but was later transferred to adult genre the reason for this was that he had not directly talked about the revolution but he had portrayed it as a satire, which made it really interesting as a novel in my opinion. Bibliography: Orwell, George, Animal Farm. London, England: Secker and Warburg (1945)

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Sociology of Childhood - 3671 Words

How the concept of Childhood has evolved over time For this assignment I will explore the concept of childhood and how this has evolved over time across different societies, looking particularly at the role education has in childhood. I will also take a closer look at the different sociological perspectives of childhood and will use these to interpret children’s experiences in order to gain a greater understanding and knowledge of early childhood. I will explore how certain constraints of childhood have emerged over time and how these have shaped our knowledge and understating of children’s lives. What is childhood and when does it end? â€Å"Childhood is a period of growth, that is to say, the period in which the individual, in both the†¦show more content†¦There are many socialisation theories that try to make sense of our socialisation process. â€Å"A socialisation theory is that, we are in effect, produced in childhood by social conditioning. It is only through this process that we become social, and because human beings are essentially social animals, this means that it is only through this process that we become fully human. More specifically we are socialised into understanding and accepting the conventional norms and values of our particular society, and becoming part of a culture; we are socialised into our particular roles, social status and social class; and according to some our own individual personality is also the result of the socialisation process.† (Maynard amp; Thomas, an introduction to Early Childhood studies, 2nd edition, Page 35) I will explore one of these theories in greater detail order to gain a wider understanding of children’s experiences. Rudolph Scaffer... Anthropologists have been particularly interested in the ways in which children are believed to play an active part in their socialisation. There are many questions that have been raised because of this – * Is a child’s personality preformed, unfolding as they get older? * Or is a child like a piece of clay, moulded by the adults? * Do children haveShow MoreRelatedSociology- Childhood1064 Words   |  5 PagesChildhood itself is a slightly ambiguous term, and is not a fixed definite period of life. The book â€Å"AS level sociology† written by Rob webb, Hal Westergaard, Kieth Trobe and Liz Steel defines childhood as â€Å" a socially defined age status† going on to say that there are major differences in how childhood is defined, both historically, and culturally, similarly, Stephen Wagg says of childhood; â€Å"childhood is socially constructed. It is in other words, what members of particular societies, at particularRead MoreThe Basic Tenets of the New Sociology of Childhood2746 Words   |  11 PagesDiscuss the basic tenants and evaluate the utility of the new sociology of childhood in gaining a better understanding of young people. Childhood is the age span ranging from birth to adolescence and its non-specific for it can imply a varying range of years in human development reference. The age ranges anywhere from 12 years to 15years with 18years being most common. Previous research done by sociologists focused on children primarily in termsRead MoreCollege Program Entry Essay: Sociology and Childhood Education556 Words   |  2 PagesMy attraction to this course is rooted in the fascination I have for sociology; I am captivated by its ability to make me see life more critically and impartially. 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However, the dominant understanding of childhood attributes biological and social development, as figurative symbolsRead MoreChildhood: The Happiest Time of a Persons Life, or Not?877 Words   |  4 Pages Is Childhood the Happiest Time of a Persons Life? Psychology is the study of the operation, development, and disorders of human mental processes. In simple words it is the science of human thinking and behavior. The word psychology originated from the ancient Greek words â€Å"psyche† which means soul and â€Å"logos† which means science. (etymonline.com, n.d.) It literally means the science of the soul. Psychology has diverse disciplines which are closely related to all aspects of life, andRead MoreEthnography And Its Difference From Other Research Methods1439 Words   |  6 Pagesprocess to go sufficiently to obtain the truthful answers of childers perspective. 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George Herbert Mead George Herbert MeadRead MoreThe Determinants Of Child Poverty Essay1526 Words   |  7 PagesGaelle Einsweiler and Jaclyn Perlman Mrs.Taylor/Period 1 Sociology Accelerated October 6, 2016 Determinants of Child Poverty in the US For our first sociology project, we decided to broaden our knowledge and intellectual curiosity on child poverty in the United States today. We chose this study and topic because we believe that this topic is of national importance and must be addressed and studied at the county level, as well. This is an issue that we can see and directly relate to in our own stateRead MoreHarriet Martineau, The Founding Mother Of Sociology924 Words   |  4 PagesHarriet Martineau, emerged as the founding mother of sociology. Inspired by Auguste Comte’s perspectives on positivism, Martineau advocated the use of scientific method and logic in sociological findings. She brought her sociological thought and studies to the United States and added a feminist voice to the field; calling for suffrage and education, she used applied sociology to advocate for change (Diniejko, 2010). Before Harriet Martineau, sociology was a field dominated by men, but her education andRead MoreStatus And Social St atus1271 Words   |  6 PagesRegardless of conflicts or strains, roles define how a person with a certain status should carry their self and the status defines how people in society interact with them. The interactions we have based on status and roles are a part of our lives from childhood through to adulthood. We are born with the ascribed status of man or woman, eventually man and woman may marry and achieve the status of husband and wife. If we choose to become a parents, husband and wife also become father and mother and the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Branch Of Biology An Example Of Multinational Influence

T.S. Eliot wrote in Notes towards the Definition of Culture that â€Å"no one nation, no one language, would have achieved what it has, if the same art had not been cultivated in neighboring countries and in different languages† (Eliot 1). In other words, art is a construction of different influences from a variety of nations. It flourishes today because those influences bring forward new elements that art can assimilate. In Eliot’s case, those elements evolved over vocabulary and rhythm of the English language. The diversity of influences endow spontaneity into art, refining its nature. Art such as the science of biology is an example of multinational influence. Biology helps humans understand themselves and the life surrounding them. As a†¦show more content†¦During that early era, Erwin Chargaff, a chemist from Austria-Hungary, contributed to the knowledge of DNA by establishing the rules of nitrogen base pairs. DNA holds nitrogen bases that bind with each o ther in a specific way. For example, two bases called adenine and thymine connect only with each other. The other two bases are guanine and cytosine, and they too bind only with each other. This base pair rule led scientists to believe that DNA had a helical structure, which was successfully reported by two biologists, James Watson and Francis Crick. Respectively, the scientists grew up in the U.S. and United Kingdom, and together, they created a lab report that credited them with the discovery and identification of DNA in 1953. Two men from different origins assisted each other to research DNA. Their work was significant to clarify the knowledge of biology, but it could not have been achieved without the discoveries made by preceding scientists. It is human nature for people to learn from each other’s work and achievements, regardless of their origin. Studying the success of others helps people uncover new knowledge, making them successful too. In terms of DNA research, scie ntists from different countries examined each other’s accomplishments, and one-by-one, they produced new information, bringing new light to biology. It took a great amount of work from different

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Janette Turner Hospital 4 Vivid Female Characters Essay Example For Students

Janette Turner Hospital: 4 Vivid Female Characters Essay In Her Two Novels With beautifully executed images , JanetteTurner Hospital creates four vivid female character in hertwo novels. The four characters are Juliet and Yashoda inThe Ivory Swing and Elizabeth and Emily in The Tiger in theTiger Pit . Each of the above is invested by Turner Hospitalwith a deep consciousness. In the view of Janette Turner Hospital, women areimmensely uncertain. They are never sure of what they want. However, when it comes to dealing with external conflicts,they are very strong-willed. On the other hand, she alsoindicates that maternal love is strong. Women havepassionate beliefs in the importance of the family. As thestories follow, these feminine personalities are graduallyproved. Before leaving for India, Juliet had a hard timedeciding whether to stay with her professor husband, David,or move to Montreal to stay with her former lover Jeremy. Uncertain as usual, all Juliet wants is to maintain thebalancing act.She could never summon up the courage toface new circumstances. Her mind is never firm enough tochallenge the present state. So she makes her choice in theorder of morality. She stays with her husband and leaves forIndia with him. It is more likely that the fate designatedJuliets future. She is married to Dave on her own accord. Therefore, she does what a good wife is supposed to do. 1. Reviewed in : Booklist v.79 p.994 Apr 1, 19832. The Ivory Swing p.18 In Kerala, where David is on sabbatical to studyprimitive Indian culture, the couple encounters Yashoda, awidow who does not accept the fate and rigid rules of herculture.Yashoda wants the right to wear jewellery, toappear in public; most of all, she wants love. She does notcare about either inauspicious or disgrace. She even runsthe risk of being penalized to travel with Annie. For anIndian woman such as Yashoda, it is considered quitedifficult adjusting to her society. Among the four female characters, many similaritiesare found between Juliet and Elizabeth. Like Juliet,Elizabeth has to choose between her husband and lover. Theonly difference is that the death of her lover has certainlymade her life easier. She no longer doubts anymore afterJeremys death. Her cross-roads becomes one way and eversince then her life is as simple as an ordinary housewife. Elizabeth still recalls her past, but she appreciates thatfact that fate decides her future for her. In this case sheavoids family and friendship broken. And she has somethingto remembrance for a life time. Elizabeths youngest child, Emily, is themysterious woman of the four. In Montreal where she happensto be pregnant and Sydney where she encounters her lover,Dave. She thereafter moves to England. It is obvious thatEmily love Dave a lot; but she is a uncertain as can be. Herleaving Dave without even saying good-bye represents her3. Reviewed in : Booklist v.79 p.994 Apr,1983doubts. She is afraid that once she has to face thereality, her love for Dave, she would crush. Juliet and Elizabeth both stay with their husbandsafter all, yet they do not own what they really want. Davehas noticed Juliets staring from the window of their houselike a woman behind bars, so has Emily mentions about herabout her mothers standing at the French window like acaged bird. Emily is aware of her uncertainty. Therefore,she decides to leave Dave for England. In her opinion sheonly wants to get away from complicated life to sort thingsout; but instead of talking to Dave about it, she leavessecretly. Her doing so has hurt Dave and sacrificed hersons, Adam, happiness as well as her own. .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b , .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b .postImageUrl , .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b , .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b:hover , .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b:visited , .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b:active { border:0!important; } .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b:active , .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u8d380ade1e089ed9e5946d882aef7c2b:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Animal Experimentation Essay It is easy to get this kind of impression thatYashoda might be the exceptional certain woman because itseems that she fights for her ideas; however, if she has thecourage to challenge realities, she should be brave enough toface the results. On the contrary, Yashoda begs for rescue. One can only say she acts as if she was a spoiled kid. Thefour women all have something in common. The problem is theyare afraid to let out their feelings. 4. The Ivory Swing p.1525. The Tiger in the Tiger Pit p.32 Although Janette Turner Hospital implies that womenare uncertain, she believes that when it comes to dealingwith external conflicts,

Sunday, April 19, 2020

Late Adulthood And Depression Essays - Depression,

Late Adulthood And Depression Late Adulthood and Depression Late adulthood should be a time in a persons life where they feel fulfilled. They can look back on their memories and be happy with the way they have lived their life. Now, too many elderly people are not satisfied and look at this stage as depressing. Most fear death of either a loved one or for themselves. This topic is interesting to me because elderly people should make the best of their last stage of life. This topic discusses about getting older, the life changes that they go through physically, emotionally, and mentally. We should know more about it so that we can help our family and friends get through one of the best, yet toughest part of our mortal life. Depression is defined as a state of despondency marked by feelings of powerlessness and hopelessness (Coon, 2001). Some people can mix up depression with just having the blues because of a couple of bad days or even weeks. It is already said that depression affects about one sixth of the population or more (Doris, Ebmeier, Shajahan, 1999). Depression can happen in any age range from birth to death. The cause of depression is still obscure and becoming clear that a number of diverse factors are likely to be implicated, both genetic and environmental. Some causes are leading stressful lives, genetic factors, a previous depressive episode, and the personality trait neuroticism (Doris, et al., 1999). There are many common symptoms in which everybody looks for which is unhappiness and disappointment. Symptoms that are different, pervasive, or interfere with normal function are considered to be pathological. Some symptoms include loss of pleasure in almost all activities, loss of reactivity to usually pleasurable stimuli, significant loss of appetite or weight loss and excessive or inappropriate guilt (Doris, et al., 1999). There are many forms of treatment that can be used for this disease. There are always new research and medications that are being tested out on patients. Many depressed patients will not go and get help. Pharmacotherapy is the most common treatment in primary care response rates between 50% and 60%, and is often used in addition to supportive counseling. (Doris, et al., 1999) More treatments that can be used are Electro-convulsive therapy (ECT), Repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and many alternative physical therapies. Electro-convulsive ther apy is used in severe, life-threatening depressive illnesses. This is usually used after pharmacotherapy has failed. Repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation is an experimental treatment for depression. Although there are not many studies involving this treatment, patients either have treatment-resistant depression or have less severe disorders. (Doris, et al., 1999). The age of late adulthood rages from the age of sixty and above. For some elderly people, life after retirement can be great. Yet for some, it can be the worse time of their life. Work has always been a central concern in their lives, symbolizing their identities and providing them with self-esteem. (Kavanaugh, 1997). The changes that occur to their body and mind can change how they choose to live the rest of their life. In Erick Ericksons psychosocial dilemmas, late adulthood deals with integrity versus despair. This is defined as a conflict in old age between feelings of personal integrity and the despair that occurs when previous life events are viewed with regret (Coon, 2001). When thinking back about their lives, they should feel good and when they start to think about the failure in their life is when they have feelings of depression because they know it is too late to change anything. Old age deepens our understanding- not only of ourselves, but of aspects of life we may have avoided ( Matousek, 1999). Depression can occur at any age, but usually increases among older people. One of the big causes of late adulthood depression is related to the loss of a loved one or spouse. In a study done by the American Family Physician, people were divided into five groups of newly bereaved, long-term widowed, sill-married, the divorced and the never-married. Data were collected on 5,449 persons, with 223 considered newly bereaved. (Miller, 2000) These people had a higher rate of depressive symptoms compared with the other study groups. About one

Sunday, March 15, 2020

The Rise of Technology in the Two Decades

The Rise of Technology in the Two Decades Free Online Research Papers The contexts of teaching have changed since the last century. The classroom has evolved from the humble one room schoolhouse to a virtual classroom. With this enormous change come changes in the role of the teacher. What we have seen is the phenomenal rise of technology in the two decades; it has taken place against a complex backdrop of cultural and social change, advances in technology and shifts in educational theory and practice. We see new tensions, new requirements, new pressures and changes in the environment socially, economical and technological, this has led to modified teaching jobs. In my experiences students have become more difficult, less motivated, more requiring, more inclined to defend their rights than to fulfill their duty. The administration or the educational authorities are making more pressure for greater accountability. Bodies such as the Adult Learning Inspectorate (FE) and the Quality Assurance Agency (HE) oversee standards and assessments, and incorporate both inclusive learning and teaching strategies, and effective use of information and learning technologies (ILT), within their remit. There it seems less and less social recognition of the teaching job†¦ The question is are teachers prepared for these changes and pressures? The traditional picture I have of the teacher as the â€Å"Master of the knowledge† with an institutional power is disappearing. What we see now is a new style of teachers: leadership style seems more appropriate to respond to those challenges. This implies new competencies: the emotional competencies. Those ch anges remind us that the teaching act is not only a cognitive action but also and first a social and affective action where emotions interfere in the class and work atmosphere. Education, along with all public services in the UK, also faces calls for greater accountability, Accountability that in essence is a positive and productive step but in the larger frame of things damages the profession as ones actions stereotype the whole profession and not to mention taint it. Different educational disciplines enjoy various learning styles, delivery techniques, Resources and Support. Flexible Learning requires support but no teaching, Distance learning requires Resources and support but not 100% teaching, Practical Professions like medicine and accountancy require Teaching as well practical learning opportunities. What the article is stressing time and time again is that there is no denying that the future and existence of HE and teaching is intertwined and that there is no substitute to the teacher in such learning environments all other supporting profession and resources and technologies are important and have their place but the human presence in HE shows no sign of diminishing no matter how strong, professional, research proven, quality focused the proposal may be. On the contrary there is a greater need for experienced and Un-experienced practitioners to be trained on a standardized platform which may be beneficial to them and to the institution as sometimes a change process may be required to benefit institutional needs and enhance sustainability. Another issue which forces Education establishments to focus on is the volume of service it has to provide and commit to as each year the no of applications in HE are increasing. This leads to the subject of cost to be discussed, to counter this the role of a teacher is carried out by supporting professionals through personalized teaching. The cost of specialist teachers personalized delivery compared to a supporting professionals cost is tremendously higher hence more and more supporting teachers roles are being created to counter and keep under control the ballooning cost. Another theory for all parties involved is that the word â€Å"Teacher† is over emphasised, the important thing is that â€Å"is effective learning being accomplished† because that is the main issue here and Priority. As described from different points of view but the statement remains the same that Education, teaching, delivery, core competencies, Resources and practice are evolving, with the introduction and expansion of the e-learning components and supporting teacher roles in all professions the road to the future is a very uncertain one. Conclusion The changes which have taken place in recent years and which continue to shape the educational landscape of the UK Higher Education sector pose many new challenges for teaching staff. Nonetheless, perhaps because of rather than in spite of these challenges, it is evident that there are unique opportunities for the enhancement of teaching and learning in the higher education sector. The current emphasis on student-centred teaching, on promoting inclusion, and developing criticality all contribute towards improving the student experience and towards maximising learning potential. It is anticipated that the present trend towards collaborative learning which emphasizes key skills (such as ICT, communication and numeracy) will hopefully address a concern expressed by employers for many years by ensuring that graduates are better-prepared for the workplace. In conclusion I would state that various changes would occur when a fundamental shift in education is required and hence the future we need to be careful of how we implement strategies and policies when in HE as it importance to any nation is Paramount. Research Papers on The Rise of Technology in the Two DecadesStandardized TestingThree Concepts of PsychodynamicOpen Architechture a white paperThe Project Managment Office SystemComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andPETSTEL analysis of IndiaAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married Males

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Objectives of an organizations public relations department Essay

Objectives of an organizations public relations department - Essay Example The first recognized and agreed upon definition of public relations was given by Edward Bernays who said that public relations was a management function that studies and records public attributes, lays down policies, strategies and procedures with a view to the aspirations of the organization, which is implemented by the setting into motion a sequence of actions capable of achieving a positive public perception and acceptance. One of the major tasks of any public relations wings of modern organizations is to maintain up-to-date information on the public opinion. This is usually achieved by the public relations wing by way of surveys and opinion polls that obtain responses in the form of various questions that aim at understanding the public perception towards a particular entity of interest to the company. In the modern age, such information is often conducted on a global scale and the information is routed and collected using various technologies of the day such as through the Inter net and through satellite means (Paul Baines, John Egan, 2004). In fact, the Internet has evolved as the single largest medium for understanding public perception by most public relations establishments. In addition to the simplicity involved in conducting online polls, the speed and efficiency with which the obtained information can be processed and viewed for required results has resulted in a rapid rise in the use of cyberspace for most public relations initiatives. Apart from these two approaches, public relations also cover the aspect of popularizing any product or service of the organization by introducing them and their inherent capabilities and functionalities to the customer. This is done by using phone based campaigns, advertising and online promotion. The public relations society of America had the following to comment on the utilities of public relations (Jane Johnston, Clara Zawawi, 2004): "Examples of the knowledge that may be required in the professional practice of public relations include communication arts, psychology, social psychology, sociology, political science, economics, and the principles of management and ethics. Technical knowledge and skills are required for opinion research, public issues analysis, media relations, direct mail, institutional advertising, publications, film/video productions, special events, speeches, and presentations." Thus, from the above definition, it can be well understood that operating under public relations requires the individual to possess certain skills that cover many domains from management to technical knowledge to psychology. Public relations are so vital to the prospects o a company and its vision, more so for the ones that are constantly under the public eye, so much so that any company would have a certain